Environmental Impact Assessment

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EIA is an activity to identify and predict the impact of a project on biogeophysico-chemical environment and on human health so as to recommend appropriate legislative measures , programs and operational procedures to minimize the impact. It is an exercise to be carried out before any project or major activity is undertaken to ensure that it will not in any away harm the environment on short- term or long- term basis.

The aim of environment impact assessment is to assess the over all impact of development project on the environment .

An impact can be defined as any change in the physical , chemical, biological , cultural or socio-economic environmental system as a result of activities relating to a project.

Salient features of EIA

i) The EIA procedure identifies the possible positive and negative impacts to the environment resulting from a proposed project.These impacts are identified over both " short- term and long-term" time frame;

ii) The EIA provides for a plan, which upon implementation, will reduce of offset the negative impacts of a project resulting in a minimum level of environmental degradation. This minimization may be result of implementation of a project alternative or project modification or environmental protection measures, which simply reduces the number or magnitude of negative impacts. The plan may also result in utilization of positive impacts for enhancement measures which offset negative impacts;

iii) To measures the level of plan implementation and the degree of effectiveness of the above environmental protection provision, the EIA provides a monitoring programme. This programme will be also designed so that it identifies the parameters of uncertainty and measures the related impacts.

EIA Procedure

The entire EIA procedure can be divided into two complementary task or sub-reports,
(i) the initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
(ii) the Full-scale Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)

IEE is a means of reviewing the environmental integrity of help determine whether or not EIA level studies can be undertaken. In this sense IEE can be used for project screening to determine which projects require a full-scale EIA.IEE will have several other uses for ensuring project-oriented environmental management as well as minimizing the effort, expense, and delay in carrying out such planning.

Full Scale Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

A multidisciplinary approach to environmental impact analysis is crucial to the decision making process and to an equal consideration of all area of potential impact, when the tradeoffs of particular alternatives are evaluated. Therefore, the professional assessing impacts within a particular area of impact, such as, natural resources, air quality, and neighborhood effects, must be educated and quantified within the disciplinary area.

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